High quality raw materials


Herders and herder cooperatives at the beginning of the wool and cashmere supply chain require processing plants and buyers to produce raw materials that meet quality and standard requirements and are reliable in origin. Herder cooperatives have the advantage of increasing the productivity of the next stage of production, as well as increasing the economic value of the raw material, through the initial sorting and sorting of raw materials.


Wool is a valuable raw material after goat cashmere due to its elasticity. The length of combed yak wool is 30-35 mm, thicker than goat cashmere, and usually darker in color, which is slightly lower than goat cashmere in terms of economic value, and is slightly lower.

As a result of long-term cooperation, training, research and promotion of the participants in the value chain, the value of yak wool has been recognized, the production of textiles and knitwear has increased, and it has become a reputable product in the international market.

Ts. Said that the quality of wool depends on the age of the yak. This is clearly reflected in the work of researchers led by Khishigjargal [1]. It is very important for herders to sort and prepare yak wool on the spot by age and color. This qualitative difference ultimately determines the market price of wool and is a direct expression of herders' income.

Yak wool is considered to be certified by the standard of animal color, age, color and quality (MNS 6377: 2013).

It is a good practice for cooperatives to register the wool received from herders in the “Wool Receipt Register”, sort the wool by color and age, clean the waste mixture, pack it in special bags, write the number, color and weight and deliver it to the producers. On the one hand, this has the advantage of clarifying the origin of raw materials and on the other hand, the cooperative has the confidence of herders and the processing industry has the confidence of the cooperative. standard (MNS 6377: 2013) has been developed and approved.

Degree of quality

Average diameter, μm

Average length, mm

Capillary size, %



Up to 18.4

Above 37.2

Up to 30



18,41 – 20,5

Not less than 35.2

Up to 30



20,51- 23,6

Not less than 32,6 

Up to 40

n addition, MNS 6377: 2013 standard states that the amount of dandruff and waste mixture in raw yak wool should not exceed 5% of the total weight of wool, and the normal moisture content of packaged wool should be 9-11 percent.


In order to increase the value of camel wool in the market, it is important to prepare it properly according to the technology.


The quality of camel wool shall be classified and prepared in accordance with the provisions of Mongolian Standard MNS 36-2015. The standard classifies body wool as camel, juvenile camel, and adult camel. There is also a requirement to classify loose wool into long (glass, throat wool) and short (knee and saiga wool).

Depending on the age of the camel, the method used in the following table shall be used to qualitatively prepare the wool for the body of the camel.

Prepare camel wool by age

Quality class

Quality definition MNS 36: 2015

Camel classification and age

Method of preparation

(Mongolian monarch)

The average fineness of cashmere hair is up to 17 microns and the cashmere content is more than 80%.

(1 year old camel)

Prepared by combing


The average fineness of cashmere hair is 17.1-19 microns and the cashmere content is more than 70%.

(2.3 year old camel)

Prepared by combing


The average fineness of cashmere hair is more than 19.1 microns and the cashmere content is more than 60%.

(Camels over 4 years old)

Prepared by combing or shearing

Adolescent camel's wool is dominated by fine hairs, the intermediate hairs are relatively small, and the wool is almost unruly. This has a positive effect on the processing industry, so producers are buying teenage camel wool at a slightly higher price. However, buyers of long-lasting wool sometimes offer a higher price than trunk wool, so it is useful to sort it separately. The production of camel's wool is more labor-intensive and labor-intensive than that of other animals.


Although the number of goats is growing, the quality of cashmere, especially the diameter of cashmere, which determines the price of cashmere on the world market, has not improved.

Step II.3.: Quality requirements for raw materials at the herder level

Cashmere should be combed as early as possible to minimize dandruff, dust and other contaminants. These contaminants in raw cashmere adversely affect the quality of processed cashmere, leading to higher operations and costs, and reducing the net output of processed cashmere.

Special methods of combing goats were tested with herders to improve animal welfare and reduce dandruff and hair loss (Figure 10). This method allows you to comb gently and avoid combing too much in one place. After several combs, the herder observes the dandruff mixture in the cashmere comb. Dandruff-free cashmere is more expensive than dandruff. Cashmere with a lot of dandruff will not be accepted by the cooperative.

When herders comb their goats, they classify the raw materials according to the classification shown in Table 6 according to the color, age and sex of the goats, pack them in special containers and bags, and write the relevant labels on them. The diameter and length of cashmere are closely related to the age and sex of the goat. This classification will ensure that the specific requirements for the diameter and length of each cashmere are fully met

A system for classifying raw cashmere by age and gender


Goat skin


Q2Female goats 2–4 years old 

Q3Male goats 2-4 years old

Q45-6 year old goats







Light gray

Light gray, light yellow, yellow






Black, dark brown, dark gray





Many years of raw material analysis show that cashmere is the thickest in male goats and goats over 5 years old. The best quality cashmere that is most in demand in the classification system is identified by a + sign. The greater the number of + signs, the better the quality of the raw material. Dyed (marking animals), dirty (leaves of trees and shrubs, manure), coarse-grained, low-grade cashmere containing plastic fibers will not be accepted. To prevent plastic fiber contamination, the cooperative supplies its members with unbreakable polyester fiber bags.


In addition to the above herder and pasture information, the following livestock and livestock products information was included in the creation of the veterinary certificate when all animals under the sale contract wore RFID earrings with a unique number. 

  1. Number of animals, type, gender, age, RFID earrings,
  2. Purpose of transportation, pictures of animals
  3. What veterinary services were provided?

The above information will be communicated to all relevant officials, inspectors and consumers, and the soum veterinarian will create a veterinary certificate and provide information about the service.

Wearing earrings for animals covered by veterinary services

The inspector of the soum veterinary and breeding department will certify it based on the veterinary service, route, validity period and the results of the laboratory analysis.

The process of creating and approving veterinary certificates takes place in a 2G network (mobile network), so relatively little data is exchanged. It has been proven during the experiment that it is suitable for the infrastructure conditions of our country.

One of the advantages of the system is that it allows inspectors to conduct inspections in a planned manner. Each inspector of the veterinary and breeding department and the road checkpoint had access to the system and obtained real-time information related to it.

An inspector logged into the system will review all veterinary certificates relevant to him or her and, if necessary, communicate directly with the parties involved in the certificate. This will improve communication and prevent livestock theft, smuggling and the spread of animal diseases.

Control during processing

Meat Market trucks, which have successfully passed checkpoints along the way, have just arrived at one of the factories. Immediately upon arrival at the factory, the veterinarian of the factory counts the transported animals with the RFID reader. When the number of animals received matches the number on the MEG, the system will mark the system as “received”. Meat industry officials have used the system to monitor their MEGs. If they are stuck on the road, they have the advantage of allowing meat processing plants to find out the reasons for their delays and take action.

The list of animals received by the meat processing plant is itself a registration list, allowing the recipient to enter additional information. This provides a basis for recording the health status of the animal, whether or not it has been slaughtered, and for starting the production process. The unique number (DDD) of the slaughtered animal shall be taken from the livestock register and printed on a special printer. This DDD, which accompanies the entire production process, achieves its goal by being nailed to the final product at the end

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